Evaluation of handover process in an acute dialysis unit

would address my tutor’s comment and make sensory amendments in my dissertation.A literature review was very poor and would like to change but need to use the same article that I have chosen and needed to stick with the same themes that I come up with because my data collection tool is related to the literature review themes.

Please address the tutors comment

I am attaching the 10 article which used for the literature review also, consider checking the attached reference as well

This module will support the student in undertaking an independent research study. Students will demonstrate the ability to synthesise and evaluate knowledge at an advanced level through the systematic investigation of a topic relevant to their area of professional practice.

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of the module, the student will be able to:

1. Work independently on a sustained research project.
2. Design a robust research proposal and, where appropriate, submit it to the relevant research ethics committee for approval.
3. Conduct a research study in accordance with the research proposal, including the collection and analysis of data.
4. Synthesise and critically evaluate the findings of the research.

Dissertation Requirements

A. Responsibility and support

Your dissertation is an individual undertaking; responsibility for its planning and completion rests with you, though tutorial guidance will be given. The dissertation requires you to evidence your ability to work independently and ethically in both researching and presenting your topic of choice and to sustain these skills throughout the year. Among these is the ability to plan and complete a substantial piece of work within the set guidelines and deadlines.

You will have two members of staff to support you: the module leader will hold four (4) tutorials throughout the year and provide general assistance. A dissertation supervisor will be agreed, appropriate to your dissertation context and methodology.

B. Approach and method

The field in which you work will normally determine the topic and scope of your dissertation. Your supervisor will assist you in the subject area of your enquiry and the method used to address the research question.

It is important to understand that a dissertation is not just a long essay; it is a different kind of work, which is organised and conducted using a systematic approach. Your dissertation will comprise a significant piece of work, which demonstrates the completion of an independent, student-led enquiry of no more than 15, 000 words (excluding references). It should demonstrate the use and understanding of high-level cognitive skills through the analysis, synthesis and evaluation of your research, with respect to its methodological approach, findings and applications.
The approach and method chosen must be appropriate to testing your research question: you can’t choose your method, then choose your topic and study question. Examples of past methods include:

 Primary research of a qualitative, quantitative or mixed nature
 An extended literature review
 A locality or service needs analysis or audit
 An audit evaluation
 A comprehensive leadership plan for a policy/practice change or innovation

Dissertations will normally involve either an element of original research or the application of an original viewpoint to secondary materials; the results must be presented in a manner appropriate to the conventions of the approach and method of study chosen. Work submitted for another degree or assignment may not comprise part of the submission for the dissertation, though you may develop a previously-selected topic.

Irrespective of the mode of enquiry chosen, your work will contain a comprehensive review of what is already known about the topic or issue to be investigated, and must demonstrate your expert knowledge of, and insight into, the issues being addressed.

Your dissertation will include a detailed rationale and critique of the mode of enquiry chosen. A clear decision trail and evidence base should be apparent for the scope and structure of your enquiry, the arguments made, and any recommendations made as a result of the study.

The dissertation will draw upon evidence, which is readily available within the public domain; you will also need to consider the cultural and policy context of your enquiry. Your work will demonstrate how you have, or could, use information/data gathered during your dissertation year to improve practice and articulate an original and meaningful contribution to service delivery and / or current knowledge in this area.

You should retain any materials used in the production of the dissertation (search records, questionnaires, transcripts, letters etc.,) as evidence of dissertation authenticity, at least until you have received your final award.

Your dissertation will be of publishable quality, and you are strongly advised to seek a suitable outlet for the co-publication of your work as part of the dissertation experience. Please discuss this with your dissertation supervisor.

Each dissertation is double marked, that is, graded ‘blind’ by two internal markers. Each marker provides feedback and they will agree a final overall grade. The marking process is then internally moderated. An external examiner views the dissertation, along with the marks and student feedback, and ensures the quality and parity of marking across dissertations and the quality standards as between universities.

Choosing your dissertation theme and mode of enquiry

In deciding upon the theme and mode of enquiry for your dissertation, ensure that the topic, approach, method and scope of the enquiry demonstrate attainment of the module learning outcomes. It is expected that your dissertation will enable you to formulate an informed opinion in relation to your chosen topic, in the light of contemporary knowledge, enabling you to present an informed debate concerning the nature of practice in your specialist area and recommendations for changes or improvement in the practitioner role or service currently offered.

Your dissertation will, therefore, include a sizeable section in which you: evaluate current knowledge and understanding of the topic under enquiry; the context in which the service is currently being delivered; a critical analysis of implications in relation to your current role or service; followed by your recommendations for role development and improvements in service delivery.

Important questions to ask yourself in deciding on your topic and developing your dissertation proposal may be:

• What would I like to change about my current role / service?
• Why is this issue relevant to my practice area?
• What is already known about the issue?
• Is there a gap in knowledge about the issue?
• Can the role / service be provided in a better way?
• What is the empirical / experiential basis for that suggestion?
• How feasible might any recommendations for change be?
• What would be the best mode of enquiry to test my ideas?
• Is there any potential risk or harm to participants or myself; If so, what are the potential risks and what can you do to reduce them?
• In what format will the findings be presented e.g., research report
• How will I disseminate the findings? To whom?
• Are there any data protection issues that I need to address? How will I ensure anonymity in any publications?
• What kind of obstacles am I likely to encounter?

The topic and mode of enquiry that you decide to use will depend upon a number of factors; we do urge you to be pragmatic in your topic choice so that you are confident of the dissertation’s feasibility. You will need to address the following questions in deciding which approach to use:

• What is the nature of the research ‘problem’
• What is the scope of my enquiry?
• What kind of evidence is available to me?
• What sources of evidence do I need to access?
• Can this be obtained in a reasonable timeframe?
• What difficulties am I likely to encounter?
• Will I have sufficient evidence upon which to base my recommendations?

Some topics may need to be rejected because information sources do not exist or you envisage problems gaining ethical approval or acquiring the evidence you need in the allotted timeframe. It is much better to acknowledge this at the beginning and identify achievable objectives for your study at an early stage. Your supervisor will assist you in doing this. Beyond this, there are no formal restrictions on your choice of topic. Your preliminary review of the literature will inform you regarding both the availability of sources and rationale for the study.

Presentation of your dissertation

Dissertation styles

Because of the wide variety of dissertation styles being presented, there is no single format recommended for their structure, but you should discuss this and be guided on the appropriate allocation of chapters, sections etc., by your supervisor. Given that you are restricted to a limit of 15,000 words, it is essential to consider the balance of the dissertation and the word count allocated to each chapter or section. The following may be used as a guide, but if in doubt please discuss your planned word allocation and the division of your work into appropriate chapters and sections, with your supervisor.

The dissertation should normally be written in the third person, avoiding references to “the author.” or “the researcher.” However, for qualitative research studies it is permissible to use the first person for parts of the dissertation.

Dissertation design and development

 Title page

The title page of your dissertation must contain the sections described below.

1. The title of the award for which you are submitting your dissertation
2. Your name and student number
3. The title of your dissertation
4. The date of submission of your dissertation
5. Word count

 Table of contents
The Table of Contents must reflect the outline and organisation of the dissertation. Be sure that all page numbers in the Table of Contents correspond to the page sequencing in your text. Be sure that headings in the Table of Contents are the same as those in the text. Both these can be set up electronically.
 Abstract
The abstract should be the last part of the dissertation to be written. It should show the reader both the context and content of the work and should include its purpose, including any hypothesis to be tested or major question asked, the approach used, the main findings and the conclusions. This is included in the word count and must be brief.
 Declaration of originality of dissertation and acknowledgement of assistance (see Appendix 3)

 Acknowledgments

These are not included in the word count but should not exceed one or two brief paragraphs.

 Introduction

The Introduction expands upon the abstract and details the question, mode of enquiry and key findings. The idea is to give the reader a background and cognitive ‘map’ of what to expect from your dissertation. This may include the presentation of a conceptual framework.

The Introduction draws on and is expanded from the research proposal.

 A preliminary review of the literature should provide a rationale for your research question and the mode of enquiry selected.
 The research question(s) and rationale for the enquiry must feature prominently.
 An outline of your method of enquiry (what you did, when and how) should be given.

 Body of dissertation

 How you distinguish the body of the work (e.g., chapter, sections) will depend on the type of dissertation undertaken and is to be negotiated with your supervisor.
 In all forms of dissertation, a separate section on your methodology will be written, that outlines your method of enquiry (what you did, when and how). It should include details of your literature search e.g., key words, databases used, mesh headings. This will provide a clear and rigorous account of how you went about your enquiry.

 Discussion

 Within this section you are required to provide discussion of the findings from your enquiry, including reference to and critique / comparison of the relevant literature previously discussed, and consideration of the reliability, trustworthiness and any limitations of the enquiry (including its methodological approach). If you have amassed a great deal of data in tabular or numerical format, this may be presented in a preceding chapter or section headed ‘Findings’ or ‘Results’. It is not anticipated, however, that you will have a great deal of empirical data unless you are undertaking primary research.
 Limitations of your enquiry and an evaluation of its outcome.
 Recommendations and / or conclusions from your enquiry.

 References
 Appendices (if absolutely required)

For a more comprehensive Guidance on writing chapters, see Appendix 4

Presentation guidelines

Tables and figures
All tables and figures, including the caption, must meet margin, font, and format requirements. All diagrams, drawings, and maps must be clear, sharp, and large enough to be readable. Tables, maps and figures one half page or less in length must appear on the same page with text either above or below the table/figure. If it is larger than one half-page, it should be inserted on a single page.
Widows and Orphans
The presentation of a dissertation will not be acceptable if it contains ‘widows’ or ‘orphans’. Widow lines occur when the last line of a paragraph appears alone at the top of a page. Orphan lines occur when the first line of a paragraph appears alone at the bottom of a page. References must not straddle 2 pages. In addition:
• A subheading at the bottom of a page must have at least two lines of text below it. Otherwise, the subheading should begin at the top of the next page.
• A new paragraph at the bottom of a page must include at least two lines of text. Otherwise, the entire paragraph should begin at the top of the next page.
• When ending a paragraph at the top of a page, there must be at least two lines of text.
• You may allow more than the normal margin at the bottom of a page in order to avoid widow and orphan lines.

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