1. To test whether people in bars drink more when they are in groups than when they are alone, researchers visited all the pubs in a city. They ordered beers and recorded observations on napkins and pieces of newspaper. Why did they keep their identities in disguise?
They were conducting a double-blind study.
They wanted to make sure the study had test-retest reliability.
They needed to determine the experimenter effects in the study at a later point in time.
They wanted the people they were observing to behave naturally.
1. A __________ might study the kind of “thinking” that goes on without awareness or study different types of intelligence.
1. People who are willing to take part in surveys usually have opinions and views that are different from those who decline to take part. This phenomenon is called:
1. Research methods that predict behavior, but do not necessarily choose one causal explanation over competing ones, are called:
1. Which modern psychological perspective is behaviorism a part of?
1. __________ concluded that his patients’ distress was due to conflicts and emotional traumas that had occurred in their early childhood and that were too threatening to be remembered consciously.
1. Given the information on how relevance of data depends on the sample selected, which of the following would be considered a good example of a representative sample of college students in the United States?
A survey given to several rural college classrooms
A questionnaire mailed to random households in Texas
A survey given to a diverse population in both urban and rural college classrooms in several states
Volunteers who found your survey on the Internet
1. Reliance on introspection got structuralists into trouble because:
Despite their training, introspectors often produced conflicting reports.
They failed to generate an intensive program of research.
They emphasized the purpose of behavior, as opposed to its analysis and description.
Trained introspection was rejected as being too objective.
1. A researcher plans to conduct an experiment to test whether a cup of hot milk at night helps people fall asleep faster than usual. In this study, the independent variable is:
the amount of time it takes participants to fall asleep.
the consumption of hot milk at bedtime.
the number of participants drinking hot milk at bedtime.
the number of hours each participant sleeps for.
1. Julie finds that the more she sleeps on the eve of an exam, the higher the score she gets for the exam. There is __________ correlation between the amount Julie sleeps and her exam scores.
1. Hippocrates argued that the brain is the ultimate source of human pleasures and pains.
1. Social psychologists focus on how groups affect attitudes and behavior.
1. The learning perspective of psychology emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
1. Wilhelm Wundt, an American psychologist, was a popular functionalist.
1. Cognitive researchers have been able to study the kind of “thinking” that goes on without awareness.
1. The theory of phrenology is a classic pseudoscience.
1. Psychologists suggested that specific character and personality traits could be read from bumps on a person’s head.
1. E. B. Titchener gave Wilhelm Wundt’s approach the name “structuralism.”
1. Computer technology can help reduce lying on surveys because many people feel more anonymous when they answer questions on a computer.
1. The likelihood of lying in surveys is increased when the respondents are guaranteed anonymity.